An Evaluation of Molecular and Morphological Traits of Parents and their Superior Progeny Genotypes from Control Cross between Seeded and Seedless Grapevines for Determination of Parent-Progeny Relationships



Grapevine is among some of the most important horticultural crops in the world and as well in Iran. Since last century attempts have been made throughout the world to improve grapes. Research in grape breeding for the purpose of improving table grape as well as raisin traits has started since 1996 in Iran with crossing some selected Seedless (Askary, Yaghoti, Bidane Sefid (Sultana) and Bidane Ghermez (Red¬-Sultana) as male parents) and Seeded (Muscat of Hamburg, Ghezel Uzum, Dizmary, Rajabi Sefid, Ali Baba, Alhaghi Ghermez and Tabarze as female parents) cultivars in 1999. Out of 1400 progenies obtained from 26 different controlled crosses, 381 which have so far produced fruits were evaluated during the growing seasons of 2006 & 2007 for qualitative and quantitative traits. For a certification of trueness of the controlled cross and the obtainede, in results this study, 12 superior progenies with their male and female parents were evaluated throught microsatellite molecular markers. Results revealed that the superior progenies had been hybrids, having genetic and phenotypic differences from their parents and from themselves. The highest similarity between a seed parent and its progenies was about 0.65 and belonged to Alibaba cultivar and the three S54, S55, S40 progenies. Results indicated that self-pollination had not occurred in female parent. SSR efficiently discriminate parents and progenies. However, it couldn't demonstrate a clear discrimination of Bidane Sefid (Sultana) and Bidane Ghermez (Red¬-Sultana) as male parents due to their high similarity. The relationship was well established among progenies, with the parents of some progenies determined to some extent. Finally Likelihood Based Assignment was employed through which were reduced errors and parentage analysis successfully made. Parents and progenies were finally evaluated through 4 qualitative traits which indicated that the that progenies were improved as compared to their parents.